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Indexes

Multiple Fields#

Indexes can be configured on one or more fields in order to improve speed of data retrieval, or defining uniqueness.

package schema
import (
"entgo.io/ent"
"entgo.io/ent/schema/index"
)
// User holds the schema definition for the User entity.
type User struct {
ent.Schema
}
func (User) Indexes() []ent.Index {
return []ent.Index{
// non-unique index.
index.Fields("field1", "field2"),
// unique index.
index.Fields("first_name", "last_name").
Unique(),
}
}

Note that for setting a single field as unique, use the Unique method on the field builder as follows:

func (User) Fields() []ent.Field {
return []ent.Field{
field.String("phone").
Unique(),
}
}

Index On Edges#

Indexes can be configured on composition of fields and edges. The main use-case is setting uniqueness on fields under a specific relation. Let's take an example:

er-city-streets

In the example above, we have a City with many Streets, and we want to set the street name to be unique under each city.

ent/schema/city.go

// City holds the schema definition for the City entity.
type City struct {
ent.Schema
}
// Fields of the City.
func (City) Fields() []ent.Field {
return []ent.Field{
field.String("name"),
}
}
// Edges of the City.
func (City) Edges() []ent.Edge {
return []ent.Edge{
edge.To("streets", Street.Type),
}
}

ent/schema/street.go

// Street holds the schema definition for the Street entity.
type Street struct {
ent.Schema
}
// Fields of the Street.
func (Street) Fields() []ent.Field {
return []ent.Field{
field.String("name"),
}
}
// Edges of the Street.
func (Street) Edges() []ent.Edge {
return []ent.Edge{
edge.From("city", City.Type).
Ref("streets").
Unique(),
}
}
// Indexes of the Street.
func (Street) Indexes() []ent.Index {
return []ent.Index{
index.Fields("name").
Edges("city").
Unique(),
}
}

example.go

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
tlv := client.City.
Create().
SetName("TLV").
SaveX(ctx)
nyc := client.City.
Create().
SetName("NYC").
SaveX(ctx)
// Add a street "ST" to "TLV".
client.Street.
Create().
SetName("ST").
SetCity(tlv).
SaveX(ctx)
// This operation will fail because "ST"
// is already created under "TLV".
_, err := client.Street.
Create().
SetName("ST").
SetCity(tlv).
Save(ctx)
if err == nil {
return fmt.Errorf("expecting creation to fail")
}
// Add a street "ST" to "NYC".
client.Street.
Create().
SetName("ST").
SetCity(nyc).
SaveX(ctx)
return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

Dialect Support#

Indexes currently support only SQL dialects, and do not support Gremlin.